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Republican Atrocities During the Troubles

The following is a list of the major atrocities and Events perpetrated by the Republican movement during the period of the troubles:

Saturday 27 June 1970

Major Gun Battle in Belfast

There was serious rioting in Belfast involving Protestants and Catholics. During the evening groups of Loyalist rioters began to make incursions into the Catholic Short Strand enclave of east Belfast. Catholics in the area believed that they were going to be burnt out of their homes and claimed that there were no British Army troops on the streets to protect the area. Members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) took up sniping positions in the grounds of St Matthew's Catholic Church and engaged in a prolonged gun battle with the Loyalists. This was the most significant IRA operation to date. Across Belfast seven people were killed of whom five were Protestants shot by the IRA.

Friday 3 July 1970

Falls Road Curfew

Beginning in the afternoon, the British Army carried out extensive house searches in the Falls Road area of Belfast for members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) and IRA arms. A military curfew was imposed on the area for a period of 34 hours with movement of people heavily restricted. The house searches lasted for two days and involved considerable destruction to many houses and their contents. During the searches the army uncovered a lot of illegal arms and explosives. However the manner in which the searches were conducted broke any remaining goodwill between the Catholic community and the British Army. During the period of the curfew there were gun battles between both wings of the IRA and the Army. Four people were killed in the violence one of them deliberately run over by an Army vehicle.

Tuesday 11 August 1970

Two Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers were killed by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) when they set off a booby trap bomb planted in a car near Crossmaglen, County Armagh.

Saturday 6 February 1971

First Soldier Killed The Irish Republican Army (IRA) shot and killed Gunner Robert Curtis, the first British soldier to die during the current conflict. Bernard Watt (28), a Catholic civilian, was shot and killed by the British Army (BA) during street disturbances in Ardoyne, Belfast. James Saunders (22), a member of the IRA, was shot and killed by the British Army during a gun battle near the Oldpark Road, Belfast

Tuesday 9 February 1971

Five men, two of them British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) engineers the others construction workers, were killed near a BBC transmitter on Brougher Mountain, County Tyrone in a landmine attack carried out by the Irish Republican Army (IRA). It was believed that their vehicle was mistaken for a British Army (BA) Landrover.

Friday 26 February 1971

Two Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers, Cecil Patterson (45) and Robert Buckley (30), were shot and killed by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) while on a mobile patrol in the Ardoyne area of Belfast.

Wednesday 10 March 1971

Dougald McCaughey (23), Joseph McCaig (18) and John McCaig (17), all three members of the Royal Highland Fusiliers (a regiment of the British Army; BA), were killed by members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA). The soldiers were off-duty and lured from a pub where they had been drinking. Their bodies were found at Squire's Hill, in the Ligoniel area of Belfast. [There was widespread condemnation of the killings and increased pressure on Chichester-Clark, then Northern Ireland Prime

Sunday 11 July 1971

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a number of bombs in the centre of Belfast injuring a number of people. [A number of commentators saw these bombs as an attempt to increase tension and confrontations between the two main communitiesinister, to take a tougher line on security in the region.]

Wednesday 1 September 1971

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a series of bombs across Northern Ireland injuring a number of people

Thursday 2 September 1971

There were further Irish Republican Army (IRA) bombs across the region including one in Belfast which wrecked the headquarters of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP). The explosions resulted in further injuries to a number of people.

Wednesday 29 September 1971

Two Protestant civilians, Alexander Andrews (60) and Ernest Bates (38), were killed in an explosion at the Four Step Inn on the Shankill Road in Belfast, no group claimed responsibility but it was believed to be the responsibility of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA).

Wednesday 27 October 1971

David Tilbury (29) and Angus Stevens (18), both members of the British Army (BA), were killed by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) during an attack on their observation post in Rosemount, Derry. Ronald Dodds (34), a Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officer, was shot dead by the IRA near Toome, County Antrim. David Powell (22), a member of the British Army, was killed by a landmine planted by the IRA at Kinawley, County Fermanagh.

Sunday 31 October 1971

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) explode a bomb at the Post Office Tower in London.

Monday 1 November 1971

Stanley Corry (28) and William Russell (31), both members of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC), were shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) in the Andersonstown area of Belfast.

Tuesday 2 November 1971

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded two bombs on the Ormeau Road in Belfast, one at a drapery shop and the other at the Red Lion bar, and killed three Protestant civilians; John Cochrane (67), Mary gemmell (55) and William Jordan (31).

Saturday 27 November 1971

Two Customs officials, Ian Hankin (27) a Protestant and James O'Neill (39) a Catholic, were shot by an Irish Republican Army (IRA) sniper who fired upon a British Army (BA) patrol investigating a bomb attack on a Customs Post near Newry, County Armagh

Friday 10 December 1971

Kenneth Smyth (28), a Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) member, and Daniel McCormick (29), a former UDR member, were killed by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) near Strabane, County Tyrone.

Saturday 11 December 1971

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) killed four Protestant civilians in a bomb attack on a furniture shop on the Shankill Road in Belfast. Two of those who were killed in the explosion were children. The dead were: Hugh Bruce (70), Harold King (29), Tracey Munn (2) and Colin Nicholl (1).

Sunday 12 December 1971

John (Jack) Barnhill, then a Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) member of the Northern Ireland Senate, was shot dead by the Official Irish Republican Army (OIRA) at his home in Strabane. He was the first politician to be killed in the current conflict.

Monday 3 January 1972

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb in Callender Street, Belfast, which injured over 60 people.

Thursday 27 January 1972

Two Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers, Peter Gilgun (26) and David Montgomery (20), were shot dead in an attack on their patrol car in the Creggan Road, Derry. The British Army and the Irish Republican Army (IRA) were engaged in gun battles near Forkhill, County Armagh. British troops fired over 1,000 rounds of ammunition.

Wednesday 2 February 1972

British Embassy Destroyed

The funerals of 11 of the dead of 'Bloody Sunday' took place in the Creggan area of Derry. Tens of thousands attended the funeral including clergy, politicians from North and South, and thousands of friends and neighbours. Throughout the rest of Ireland prayer services were held to coincide with the time of the funerals. In Dublin over 90 per cent of workers stopped work in respect of those who had died, and approximately 30,000 - 100,000 people turned out to march to the British Embassy. They carried 13 coffins and black flags. Later a crowd attacked the Embassy with stones and bottles, then petrol bombs, and the building was burnt to the ground.

Tuesday 22 February 1972

Aldershot Barracks Bomb

The Official Irish Republican Army (OIRA) exploded a bomb at Aldershot military barracks, the headquarters of the Parachute Regiment, killing seven people who were mainly ancillary staff. A Catholic padre was among the dead. [This bomb was thought to be an attempted retaliation against the regiment who had carried out the 'Bloody Sunday' killings.]

Friday 25 February 1972

There was an attempted assassination of John Taylor, then Minister of State for Home Affairs, who was shot a number of times. The Official Irish Republican Army (OIRA) later claimed responsibility.

Saturday 4 March 1972

The Abercorn Restaurant in Belfast was bombed without warning. Two Catholic civilians were killed and over 130 people injured. The Irish Republican Army (IRA) did not claim responsibility for the bomb but were universally considered to have been involved.

Monday 20 March 1972

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a car-bomb in Lower Donegall Street, Belfast bomb, which killed 6 people and injured approximately 100 others. Two of those killed were Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers who were trying to evacuate people from the area. Another of those killed was a member of the Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) and the rest were Protestant civilians.

Friday 14 April 1972

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded 23 bombs at locations all over Northern Ireland.

Wednesday 10 May 1972

An Irish Republican Army (IRA) bomb started a fire that destroyed the Belfast Co-operative store.

Wednesday 17 May 1972

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) opened fire on workers leaving the Mackies engineering works in west Belfast. [Although the factory was sited in a Catholic area it had an almost entirely Protestant workforce.]

Friday 26 May 1972

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) planted a bomb in Oxford Street, Belfast which killed a 64 year old woman. In the Republic of Ireland the Special Criminal Court was re-instituted to deal with crimes arising out of the Northern Ireland conflict. As part of the measures trial by jury was suspended.

Friday 2 June 1972

Two British Army soldiers were killed in a land mine attack by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) near Rosslea, County Fermanagh.

Sunday 18 June 1972

Three members of the British Army were killed by an Irish Republican Army (IRA) bomb in a derelict house near Lurgan, County Down.

Saturday 24 June 1972

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) killed three British Army soldiers in a land mine attack near Dungiven, County Derry.

Sunday 9 July 1972

Five Catholic civilians were shot dead by the British Army in the Ballymurphy area of Belfast. Three Protestants, one of whom was a member of the Territorial Army, were found shot dead in Little Distillery Street, Belfast. They were shot by Republican paramilitaries. Also in Belfast a Catholic man was shot dead by the British Army and a Protestant man was shot dead by Republican paramilitaries. A member of the Ulster Defence Association (UDA) was shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) in Belfast.

Friday 14 July 1972

Six people were shot and killed in separate incidents in Belfast. Three were British Army soldiers, two were members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) and one was a Protestant civilian.

Monday 31 July 1972

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded three car bombs in Claudy, County Derry killing six people instantly while a further three people died of their injuries over the next 12 days. Five of those who were killed were Protestant civilians while the other four were Catholic civilians.

Saturday 2 September 1972

The headquarters of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP), in Glengall Street, Belfast, was severely damaged by a bomb.

Sunday 14 January 1973

Two Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers were killed in Derry by a booby-trap bomb attached to their car by the Irish Republican Army (IRA).

Tuesday 20 February 1973

Two members of the British Army were shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) in an attack in Cupar Street, Belfast.

Sunday 25 February 1973

A Catholic boy, Gordon Gallagher (9), was killed by a booby-trap bomb that had been planted by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) in Leenan Gardens, Derry.

Tuesday 27 February 1973

Two Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers were shot by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) near Moira, County Antrim. [One officer died at the scene and the other died from his wounds on 25 March 1973.]

Thursday 8 March 1973

The Border Poll

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded two car bombs in London and killed one person and injured over 200 people. One of the bombs had been planted at the 'Old Bailey' court in London. Two other car bombs were diffused. [Nine people were found guilty of the bombings on 14 November 1973. Among those found guilty was Gerry Kelly. Kelly was later to become a leading member of Sinn Féin and played a role in the negotiations that led to the Goody Friday Agreement on 10 April 1998.] There were bombs in Belfast and Derry.

Friday 23 March 1973

Three members of the British Army were shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) in a house in the Antrim Road, Belfast. The soldiers had been lured to the house.

Wednesday 28 March 1973

A ship (the Claudia) was intercepted off the Waterford coast in the Republic of Ireland. It was found to contain 5 tonnes of weapons which were on route to the Irish Republican Army (IRA).

Saturday 7 April 1973

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a land-mine attack on a mobile patrol of the British Army and killed 3 soldiers near Newtownhamilton, County Armagh.

Saturday 5 May 1973

Two members of the British Army were killed by a booby-trap bomb near Crossmaglen, County Armagh. The attack was carried out by the Irish Republican Army (IRA).

Sunday 13 May 1973

Two members of the British Army were killed by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) in a bomb attack on the Donegall Road, Belfast.

Monday 14 May 1973

Martin McGuinness was released from prison in the Republic of Ireland having served a six months sentence.

Thursday 17 May 1973

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a booby-trap bomb attack on five members of the British Army who were off duty at the time. The attack occurred in Omagh, County Tyrone. [Four soldiers were killed on the day and the fifth soldier died on 3 June 1973.]

Tuesday 12 June 1973

Six Protestant civilians, aged between 60 and 76, were killed when a car-bomb exploded in Railway Street, Coleraine. The attack was carried out by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) who had given an inadequate warning of the bomb.

Tuesday 17 July 1973

Two members of the British Army were killed by a booby-trap bomb that had been planted by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) in Divis Flats, Belfast.

Wednesday 29 August 1973

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) planted two bombs in Solihull, England and also planted an incendiary device in Harrod's store in London.

Monday 10 September 1973

There were two bomb attacks at train stations in London; the attacks were carried out by the Irish Republican Army (IRA).

Monday 4 February 1974

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) planted a bomb on a coach carrying British soldiers and their families. The bomb exploded as the coach travelled along the M62 in England and 11 people were killed at the scene and one other person died a few days later. [This bomb was the first of many attacks in Britain during 1974. Judith Ward was later convicted of causing the explosion and given a sentence of 30 years. It wasn't until 1992 that she was proved to be innocent and released.]

Tuesday 12 February 1974

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb in Buckinghamshire, England, which injured 10 people.

Saturday 30 March 1974

Two Protestant civilians were killed in a bomb attack on the Crescent Bar, Sandy Row, Belfast. No group claimed responsibility for the attack.

Monday 17 June 1974

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb at Westminster Hall in London, 11 people were injured in the explosion.

Sunday 14 July 1974

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out bomb attacks in Manchester and Birmingham.

Wednesday 17 July 1974

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb at the Tower of London which killed one person and injured a further 41 others.

Tuesday 13 August 1974

Two British soldiers were killed by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) in a remote controlled bomb attack near Crossmaglen, County Armagh.

Saturday 5 October 1974

Guildford Bombs

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) planted bombs in two pubs in Guildford, Surrey, England, which killed five people and injured a further 54. The pubs were targeted because they were frequented by off-duty British soldiers. [Members of the Maguire family, the 'Maguire Seven', were convicted of these explosions in 1976 and some served 15 years in prison before the convictions were overturned.]

Monday 28 October 1974

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) killed two British soldiers in a bomb attack outside Ballykinlar British Army base, County Down.

Thursday 7 November 1974

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) killed two British soldiers with a booby-trap bomb near Stewartstown, County Tyrone. The IRA threw a bomb through the window of the King's Arms public house in Woolwich, London, and killed one off-duty British soldier and one civilian. The explosion also injured a further 28 people.

Thursday 21 November 1974

Birmingham Pub Bombs

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) planted bombs in two public houses, the Mulberry Bush and the Tavern in the Town in Birmingham and killed a total of 21 civilians (two of whom died in the weeks following the explosions). [There was widespread outrage amongst the general public and the British government came under pressure to be seen to be acting against the threat of further bombs. On 29 November 1974 the Prevention of Terrorism Act was passed. Six Irish men, the 'Birmingham Six', were arrested and convicted of causing the explosions and served 16 years in prison before being freed on appeal on 14 March 1991.]

Saturday 14 December 1974

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a gun attack on a joint British Army and Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) foot patrol near Forkhill, County Armagh. An RUC officer died at the scene and a soldier died from injuries received on 30 December 1974.

Tuesday 21 January 1975

There was a series of bomb explosions in Belfast in attacks carried out by the Irish Republican Army (IRA). Two members of the IRA were killed when a bomb they were transporting by car exploded in Victoria Street, Belfast.

Monday 27 January 1975

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded five bombs in London and another bomb in Manchester which injured 26 people.

Saturday 5 April 1975

Republican paramilitaries carried out a bomb attack on Mountainview Tavern, Shankill Road, Belfast, and killed five people. Four of the dead were Protestant civilians and one was a member of the Ulster Defence Association (UDA). Merlyn Rees, then Secretary of Sate for Northern Ireland, said that Loyalist paramilitaries had tried to assassinate him in 1974.

Tuesday 3 June 1975

Two Protestant civilians and an off-duty member of the Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) were found shot dead in a car in Killeen, County Armagh. Republican paramilitaries were responsible for the killings.

Monday 7 July 1975

An Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officer was killed by a booby-trap bomb planted by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) at a school in Lurgan, County Armagh.

Thursday 17 July 1975

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) killed four British soldiers in a remote controlled bomb attack near Forkhill, County Armagh. [While the IRA claimed the attack was in retaliation to the killing of a Catholic earlier in the month, this incident was another serious breach of the truce.]

Wednesday 13 August 1975

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a bomb and gun attack on the Bayardo Bar, Shankill Road, Belfast killing five people and injuring 40 others. One of those killed was a member of the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) the other four were Protestant civilians.

Monday 1 September 1975

Five Protestant civilians died and seven were injured as a result of an attack on an Orange Hall in Newtownhamilton, County Armagh. Responsibility for the attack was claimed by a group called the South Armagh Republican Action force (SARAF) which was considered by many commentators to be a covername for members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA).. Thomas Taylor (50), a Protestant civilian, was shot dead by Republican paramilitaries at his place of work in Donegall Street, Belfast.

Friday 5 September 1975

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb at the Hilton Hotel in London and killed two people and injured a further 63. [This attack marked the start of a renewed bombing campaign in England.]

Monday 22 September 1975

There was a series of bomb attacks on towns across Northern Ireland. [The Irish Republican Army (IRA) claimed responsibility for some of the attacks thus putting further strain on the truce. Many commentators considered that the truce was effectively over by this time.]

Sunday 28 September 1975

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb in Caterham, Surrey, England.

Monday 29 September 1975

Seven people were injured in an Irish Republican Army (IRA) bomb attack in Oxford Street, London.

Thursday 9 October 1975

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb outside the Green Park Underground Station in London and killed one person and injured 20 others.

Monday 10 November 1975

The 'incident centre' in Derry was blown up in a bomb attack carried out by the Irish Republican Army (IRA). The IRA in the city were opposed to the truce.

Tuesday 18 November 1975

Two civilians were killed and 23 were injured when members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) threw a bomb into Walton's Restaurant in Walton Street, London.

Friday 22 November 1975

Three British soldiers were shot dead in a gun attack on a British Army observation post near Crossmaglen, County Armagh.

Tuesday 25 November 1975

Two Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers were shot dead while on patrol by members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) near Pomeroy, County Tyrone.

Thursday 27 November 1975

Ross McWhirter, who had publicly criticised Irish Republican Army (IRA) violence, was shot dead by the IRA at his home in Enfield, London.

Tuesday 2 December 1975 T

wo Protestant civilians were shot dead by Republican paramilitaries in the Dolphin Restaurant, Strand Road, Derry.

Saturday 6 December 1975

Balcombe Street Siege British police chased a group of four Irish Republican Army (IRA) men through the West End of London. There was a car chase and an exchange of gunfire before the IRA members took over a council flat in Balcombe Street and held the married couple living in the flat hostage. [This marked the beginning of a six-day siege during which time the IRA members demanded a plane to take them to the Republic of Ireland. The siege ended when the hostages were released unharmed and the IRA members surrendered to police.] Two members of the IRA were killed when the land mine they were preparing exploded prematurely near Killeen, County Armagh.

Wednesday 31 December 1975

Three Protestant civilians were killed in a bomb attack, carried out the People's Republican Army (PRA), a covername used by the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA), on the Central Bar, Gilford, County Down.

Monday 5 January 1976

Kingsmills Killings

Ten Protestant civilians were killed by the Republican Action Force (RAF), believed to be a covername for some members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA), in an attack on their minibus at Kingsmills, near Bessbrook, County Armagh. The men were returning from work when their minibus was stopped by a bogus security checkpoint. An RUC officer was shot dead by members of the IRA near Castledawson, County Derry.

Wednesday 31 March 1976

Three British soldiers were killed in a land mine attack carried out by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) near Belleek, County Armagh

Wednesday 7 April 1976

Three members of a Protestant family were killed by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) when an incendiary bomb caused a fire in the drapery business below the Herron family home.

Friday 16 April 1976

Two Catholic civilians were killed in an Irish Republican Army (IRA) bomb at Servia Street, Lower Falls, Belfast.

Thursday 29 April 1976

An off-duty member of the Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) and a Protestant civilian died as a result of an Irish Republican Army (IRA) attack near Dungannon, County Tyrone.

Sunday 16 May 1976

Two Protestant civilians were shot dead by Republican paramilitaries outside a Social Club, Alliance Road, Belfast. An off-duty Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officer was shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) near Benburb, County Tyrone.

Friday 25 June 1976

Three Protestant civilians were shot dead during a gun attack on The Store Bar, Lyle Hill Road, Templepatrick, County Antrim. The attack was carried out by a group called the Republican Action Force (RAF), believed to be a covername for some members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA).

Wednesday 21 July 1976

British Ambassador to Ireland Killed

Christopher Ewart Biggs (54), then the British Ambassador to Ireland, was killed in a landmine attack on his official car in Sandyford, Dublin. His secretary, Judith Cook (25), was also killed in the explosion. Merlyn Rees, then Secretary of Sate for Northern Ireland, was originally to have travelled in the car as well.

Friday 30 July 1976

Four Protestant civilians died as a result of a gun attack on the Stag Inn, Belvoir, Belfast. The attack was carried out by the Republican Action Force (RAF), believed to be a covername for some members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA).

August 1976

Tuesday 3 August 1976

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a series of six bomb attacks on Portrush, County Antrim.

Friday 24 September 1976

Two Protestant civilians were shot dead by Republican paramilitaries during an attack on Crangle's Bar, Cavehill Road, Belfast.

Saturday 25 September 1976

Two members of a Protestant family, James Kyle (61) and Rosaleen Kyle (19), died as a result of a gun attack on their home in Ormonde Park, Finaghy, Belfast. The attack was carried out by the Irish Republican Army (IRA).

Wednesday 13 October 1976

Two members of a Protestant family, William Corrigan (41) and Leslie Corrigan (19), died as a result of a gun attack outside their home near Portadown, County Armagh. The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out the attack.

Saturday 16 October 1976

Michael Clerkin (24), then a member of the Garda (Irish police), was killed by a booby-trap bomb near Portlaoise, County Laois, Republic of Ireland. The bomb was planted by the Irish Republican Army (IRA). Three members of the IRA were killed when a bomb they were planting exploded prematurely at Belfast Gas Works, Ormeau Road, Belfast.

Sunday 24 October 1976

Two British soldiers died as a result of a gun attack at Oakfield Street, Ardoyne, Belfast. The attack was carried out by the Irish Republican Army (IRA).

Saturday 27 November 1976

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) killed two Catholic civilians in separate booby-trap bomb attacks in Lurgan, County Armagh and Bogside, Derry. The bombs had been intended for the security forces.

Thursday 9 December 1976 The Irish Republican Army (IRA) planted a series of fire-bombs in shops in Derry which caused an estimated £1 million in damages

January 1977

Saturday 1 January 1977

A 15 month old baby boy was killed in a car bomb explosion at Harmin Park, Glengormley, near Belfast. The car bomb had been planted by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) and an inadequate warning given.

Wednesday 19 January 1977

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a series of booby-trap bomb attacks on security force members. ??

Saturday 29 January 1977

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) explode seven bombs in a series of attacks in the West End of London.

February 1977

Wednesday 2 February 1977

Jeffrey Agate (59), then Managing Director of the American Du Pont factory in Derry was shot dead by members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) outside his home at Talbot Park, Derry. [This killing marked the beginning of a series of attacks on businessmen. There were further killings on 2 March 1977 and 14 March 1977.]

Wednesday 2 March 1977

Donald Robinson (56), an English businessman, was shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) at his place of work near University Street, Belfast.

Saturday 14 May 1977

Robert Nairac (29), a member of the British Army, was abducted by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) outside the Three Step Inn, near Forkhill, County Armagh. His body was never recovered and he was presumed dead. [The IRA later stated that they had interrogated and killed a Special Air Service (SAS) officer. Nairac was posthumously awarded the George Cross.]

Thursday 2 June 1977

Three members of an Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) mobile patrol were shot dead by Irish Republican Army (IRA) snipers near Ardboe, County Tyrone.

Wednesday 29 June 1977

Two members of the British Army were shot dead by Irish Republican Army (IRA) snipers at the entrance to North Howard Street Army base, Belfast.

Wednesday 10 August 1977

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) planted a small bomb in a garden on the campus of the New University of Ulster which was visited by the Queen as part of her jubilee celebrations. The bomb exploded after the Queen had left and it caused no injuries, nor was the Queen's schedule affected. Members of the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) refused to attend a reception in her honour.

Wednesday 14 December 1977

Paul Harman (27), a member of the British Army, was shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) while driving an unmarked car through the Turf Lodge area of Belfast.

Wednesday 21 December 1977

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a series of fire-bomb attacks on hotels in Northern Ireland and damaged five hotels.

Friday 13 January 1978

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a bomb attack on the Guildhall in Derry causing serious damage. [The building had reopened seven months earlier following damage in a fire bomb attack in July 1972.]

Wednesday 8 February 1978

William Gordon (39), then a member of the Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR), and Lesley Gordon (10), his daughter, were killed by a booby-trap bomb attached to a car outside their home in Maghera, County Derry, by the Irish Republican Army (IRA).

Friday 17 February 1978

La Mon Restaurant Bombing

Twelve people, all Protestant civilians, were killed and 23 badly injured when an incendiary bomb exploded at the restaurant of the La Mon House Hotel, Gransha, near Belfast. The bomb had been planted by the Irish Republican Army (IRA). Canisters of petrol had been attached to a bomb which was left on a window-sill of the restaurant. An inadequate warning had been given and the restaurant was being cleared when the bomb exploded. Many of those killed were burnt to death.

Friday 3 March 1978

A British soldier and a Protestant civilian searcher were both killed in an Irish Republican Army (IRA) gun attack on a British Army pedestrian checkpoint in Donegall Street, Belfast.

Friday 17 March 1978

David Jones (23), a British soldier, was shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) during a gun battle in a field near Maghera, County Derry. Jones had been undercover at the time. Francis Hughes, then a member of the IRA, was arrested following the incident.

Saturday 17 June 1978

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a gun attack on an Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) patrol car near Crossmaglen, County Armagh. One officer, Hugh McConnell (32), was killed at the scene and a second officer, William Turbitt (42), was kidnapped. [A Catholic priest was kidnapped the following day in retaliation but was later released. On 10 July 1978 the body of Officer Turbitt was discovered.

Thursday 21 September 1978

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a bomb attack on Eglinton airfield, County Derry. The terminal building, two aircraft hangers, and four planes were destroyed in the attack.

Thursday 12 October 1978

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) planted a bomb on the Belfast to Dublin train and one woman was killed and two others injured when it exploded without adequate warning.

Tuesday 14 November 1978

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a number of bomb attacks in towns across Northern Ireland. Serious damage was caused in attacks in Armagh, Belfast, Castlederg, Cookstown, Derry and Enniskillen. Thirty-seven people were injured in the attacks. [This series of bomb attacks represented a renewed bombing campaign and over 50 bombs were exploded in the following week.]

Sunday 26 November 1978

Albert Miles, then Deputy Governor of Crumlin Road Prison, was shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) outside his home in Evelyn Gardens, Belfast. [This was one of a series of attacks on prison officers.]

Thursday 30 November 1978

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a number of bomb and fire-bomb attacks in 14 towns and villages across Northern Ireland. The IRA issued a statement admitting the attacks and warning that it was preparing for a 'long war'.

December 1978

Friday 1 December 1978

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out 11 bomb attacks in towns across Northern Ireland.

Tuesday 12 December 1978

Four people were injured by parcel bombs in Belfast and Lisburn. Three of those injured were the wives of prison officers and the fourth was a postman.

Sunday 17 December 1978

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a series of bomb attacks on cities in England. Bombs exploded in Bristol, Coventry, Liverpool, Manchester, and Southampton.

Thursday 21 December 1978

Three British soldiers were shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) in a gun attack on their foot patrol in Crossmaglen, County Armagh.

Sunday 4 February 1979

Patrick MacKin (60), a former Prison Officer, and his wife Violet (58), were both shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) at their home in Oldpark Road, Belfast.

Tuesday 20 February 1979

Two Catholic teenagers, Martin McGuigan (16) and James Keenan (16), were killed by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) in a remote controlled bomb explosion at Darkley, near Keady, County Armagh. [It is believed that the two teenagers were mistaken in the dark for a British Army foot patrol.]

Thursday 22 March 1979

Members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) killed Richard Sykes (58), then British Ambassador to the Netherlands, and also his Dutch valet Krel Straub (19), in a gun attack in Den Haag, Netherlands. The IRA carried out a series of attacks across Northern Ireland with 24 bombs exploding on same day.

Friday 30 March 1979

Airey Neave Killed

Airey Neave, then Conservative Party spokesperson on Northern Ireland, was killed by a booby-trap bomb attached to his car as he left the car park at the House of Commons. The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) claimed responsibility for the killing. [If he had lived Neave would have been highly likely to have become the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland in the new Conservative government. Neave had been an advocate of a strong security response to counter Republican paramilitaries. Neave had also advocated the setting up of one or more regional councils to take responsibility for local services.]

April 1979

Thursday 5 April 1979

Two British soldiers were shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) while standing outside Andersonstown join Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) and British Army base in Belfast.

Wednesday 11 April 1979

Two British soldiers died as a result of a gun attack carried out by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) in Ballymurphy, Belfast.

Monday 16 April 1979

Michael Cassidy (31), a Prison Officer, was shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) as he left a church in Clogher, County Tyrone, where his sister had just gotten married.

Tuesday 17 April 1979

Four Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers were killed when the Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded an estimated 1,000 pound van bomb at Bessbrook, County Armagh. [This was believed to be the largest bomb used by the IRA to this date.]

Thursday 19 April 1979

Agnes Wallace (40), a Prison Officer, was shot dead and three of her colleagues injured when the Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a gun and grenade attack outside Armagh women's prison.

Sunday 6 May 1979

An undercover member of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) and an undercover member of the British Army were both shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) at Lisnaskea, County Fermanagh.

Thursday 10 May 1979

In the United States of America (USA) a judge ruled that a group of men, believed to be members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) and also considered to be responsible for bombing the Ripon Barracks in North Yorkshire, should not be extradited to Britain.

June 1979

Saturday 2 June 1979

An off-duty member of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) and a Protestant civilian were shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) at Ballinahome Crescent, Armagh.

Sunday 3 June 1979 Two Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers were killed by a landmine bomb planted by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) at Cullaville, near Crossmaglen, County Armagh.

Thursday 2 August 1979 Two British soldiers were killed by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) in a landmine attack at Cathedral Road, Armagh. [These deaths brought the total number of British Army soldiers killed in Northern Ireland since 1969 to 301.]

Tuesday 7 August 1979 Eamon Ryan (32), a civilian in the Republic of Ireland, was shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) during a bank robbery in Strand Street, Tramore, County Waterford.

Monday 27 August 1979

Warrenpoint Attack and Mountbatten Killing

18 British soldiers were killed in an Irish Republican Army (IRA) attack at Warrenpoint, County Down. This represented the British Army's greatest loss of life in a single attack in Northern Ireland. The attack began when the IRA exploded a 500 pound bomb at Narrow Water, near Warrenpoint, as an army convoy was passing. Six members of the Parachute Regiment were killed in this initial bomb. As other soldiers moved into the area a second bomb was detonated in a nearby Gate Lodge killing 12 members of the Queen's Own Highlanders along with their commanding officer. The explosion also damaged an army helicopter. A gun battle then broke out between the IRA who were positioned in the Irish Republic and British Army soldiers in Northern Ireland. An innocent civilian was killed on the Republic side of the border by soldiers firing from the north. Earlier in the day Louis Mountbatten (79), a cousin of the Queen, was killed by a bobby-trap bomb left by the IRA on a boat near Sligo in the Republic of Ireland. Three other people were killed in the explosion, Lady Brabourne (82), Nicholas Brabourne (14), Mountbatten's grandson, and Paul Mazwell (15), a crew member on the boat. Mountbatten had been a regular visitor to the Mullaghmore area of County Sligo each August and never had a bodyguard. He was on a fishing trip and was accompanied by a number of people on the boat when the bomb exploded. [During the Second World War Mountbatten had been supreme commander of allied forces in south-east Asia. He had also been the last British Viceroy of India and oversaw Indian independence. Thomas McMahon was charged with Mountbatten's murder and later sentenced to life imprisonment.] [The deaths on 27 August 1978 were followed by a series of killings of Catholic civilians by Loyalist paramilitaries.]

Sunday 28 October 1979

A British Army (BA) soldier and a Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officer died as a result of an Irish Republican Army (IRA) gun attack on a joint BA and RUC mobile patrol at Springfield Road, Belfast.

Sunday 16 December 1979

Four British soldiers were killed by a landmine bomb planted by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) at Ballygawley Road, near Dungannon, County Tyrone. Another soldier was killed by a booby-trap bomb at Forkhill, County Armagh. James Fowler, a former member of the Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR), was shot dead by the IRA in Omagh, County Tyrone.

Sunday 6 January 1980

Three members of the Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) where killed by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) in a land mine attack near Castlewellan, County Down. [These deaths brought the 'official' death toll, as compiled by the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC), to over 2,000. RUC figures do not count those killed outside of Northern Ireland.]

Monday 11 February 1980

Two Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers were killed in a land mine attack at Rosslea, County Fermanagh.

Saturday 16 February 1980

An off-duty colonel in the British Army was shot dead outside his home in Bielfeld, West Germany.

May 1980

Monday 5 May 1980

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a bomb attack on the North-South electricity link at Crossmaglen. The British and Irish governments had been attempting to re-establish the link following an earlier explosion.

Thursday 12 June 1980

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a car bomb attack on Markethill, County Armagh, which seriously damaged property in the centre of the town.

Sunday 20 July 1980

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) planted a car bomb in Lisnaskea, County Fermanagh, which caused extensive damage to the centre of the town.

Wednesday 21 January 1981

Norman Stronge (86), a former speaker of the Stormont parliament, and James Stronge (48), his son, were shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) in an attack on their mansion, Tynan Abbey, near Middletown, County Armagh.

Saturday 21 February 1981

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a series of fire bomb attacks on eight shops in Belfast and three in Derry which resulted in damage to all 11 stores.

Friday 27 February 1981

A large van bomb exploded in the centre of Limavady, County Derry, causing damage to 40 premises. [It was believed that the Irish Republican Army (IRA) were responsible for the attack (?).]

Tuesday 7 April 1981

Joanne Mathers (29), a Protestant civilian who was acting as a census enumerator, was shot dead in the Gobnascale area of Derry, while she was collecting census returns. Republican paramilitaries were responsible for the killing.

Saturday 9 May 1981

Eric Guiney (45) and his son Desmond Guiney (14), both Protestant civilians, died three days after their milk lorry crashed following an incident in which it was stoned by a crowd of people at the junction of New Lodge Road and Antrim Road in Belfast. The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb at an oil terminal in the Shetland Islands. A quarter of a mile away at that time the Queen was attending a function to mark the official opening of the terminal.

Tuesday 19 May 1981

Five British soldiers were killed in an Irish Republican Army (IRA) landmine attack near Bessbrook, County Armagh. The soldiers had been travelling in an armoured vehicle when the bomb exploded.

Saturday 13 June 1981

A booby trap bomb was planted on a car being used by Lord Gardiner during a visit to Belfast. The Irish Republican Army (IRA) attack failed when the bomb fell of the car and failed to explode.

Wednesday 5 August 1981

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a series of car bomb and incendiary bomb attacks in seven areas of Northern Ireland including Belfast, Derry and Lisburn. The attacks caused serious damage to property and minor injuries to a number of people.

Monday 7 September 1981 Two Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers were killed in a landmine attack carried out by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) on their mobile patrol near Cappagh, County Tyrone.

Saturday 10 October 1981

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a bomb attack on Chelsea Barracks in London. Two British civilians were killed and 40 other people injured including 23 soldiers.

Saturday 17 October 1981

Steuart Pringle, then Commandant-General of the Royal Marines, was badly injured when the Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb under his car.

Friday 13 November 1981

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a bomb attack on the home of Michael Havers, then British Attorney-General, in London.

Saturday 14 November 1981

Robert Bradford Killed

The Reverend Robert Bradford (40), then an Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) Member of Parliament, was shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) at a community centre in Finaghy in Belfast. Kenneth Campbell (29), a Protestant civilian who was a caretaker at the centre, was also shot and killed.

Wednesday 25 November 1981

The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) carried out a bomb attack at a British Army base in Herford, West Germany. There were no injuries in the attack.

Saturday 20 February 1982

Patrick Reynolds (24), then an Officer in the Garda Síochána (the Irish police), was shot dead by the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) when he went to a house in Avonbeg Gardens, Tallaght, Dublin.

Tuesday 23 Februay 1982

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) sunk a British coal boat, the St Bedan, in Lough Foyle.

Monday 15 March 1982

Alan McCrum (11), a Protestant boy, was killed and 34 people injured when the Irish Republican Army (IRA) explodud a bomb in Bridge Street, Banbridge, County Down. An inadequate warning had been given.

Thursday 25 March 1982

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) killed three British Soldiers during a gun attack on Crocus Street, off the Springfield Road in west Belfast. Five other people were injured in the attack. [It was believed that an M-60 machine gun was used in the attack.]

Tuesday 20 April 1982

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a series of attacks in Northern Ireland. Wilbert Kennedy (36) and Noel McCulloch (32), both Protestant civilians, were killed in a bomb blast at the Diamond, Magherafelt, County Derry. An inadequate warning had been given. A further 12 people were injured in the attacks. Bombs exploded in Armagh, Ballymena, Belfast, Bessbrook, Derry, and Magherafelt, and caused an estimated £1 million pounds in damage.

Tuesday 20 July 1982

Hyde Park Bombs

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded two bombs in London, one at Rotten Row, Hyde Park and the other at the Bandstand in Hyde Park, killing eight British Soldiers; three other soldiers died later of their injuries (?). The first bomb exploded when soldiers of the Blues and Royals were travelling on horseback to change guard at Horseguards Parade. Two soldiers were killed and 17 spectators injured. Seven horses were also killed by the explosion. The second bomb had been planted under the bandstand in Hyde Park and the blast killed six soldiers of the Royal Green Jackets and injured 24 people. [British public opinion was outraged by the carnage caused by the IRA attack.]

Thursday 16 September 1982

The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) carried out a booby-trap bomb attack on a British Army patrol in the Divis Flats in Belfast and killed two Catholic children, Stephen Bennett (14) and Kevin Valliday (12), and one soldier, Kevin Waller (20).

Tuesday 19 October 1982

The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) carried out a bomb attack on the headquarters of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) in Glengall Street, Belfast. The building was badly damaged by the blast.

Wednesday 27 October 1982

Three Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers where killed when the Irish Republican Army (IRA) detonated a land mine as the RUC patrol passed near Oxford Island, near Lurgan, County Armagh.

Tuesday 9 November 1982

Garry Ewing (31), an Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officer, and Helen Woodhouse (29), a Protestant civilian, were killed by a booby trap bomb attacked to Ewing's car by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) at the Lakeland Forum Leisure Centre in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh.

Monday 6 December 1982

'Droppin Well' Bomb

The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) exploded a bomb at the Droppin' Well Bar and Disco in Ballykelly, County Derry, and killed 17 people; 11 British soldiers and 6 civilians. The soldiers regularly socialised in the pub which was close to the British Army base in Ballykelly. [Tomás Ó Fiaich, then Catholic Primate of Ireland, called the killings "gruesome slaughter". Margaret Thatcher, then British Prime Minister, said: "This is one of the most horrifying crimes in Ulster's tragic history. The slaughter of innocent people is the product of evil and depraved minds, and the act of callous and brutal men."]

Thursday 6 January 1983

Two undercover Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers were shot dead by members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) in Rostrevor, County Down.

Sunday 16 January 1983

William Doyle, a County Court judge, was shot dead by members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) as he left mass at a Catholic church in south Belfast.

Tuesday 24 May 1983

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) planted a bomb, estimated at 1,000 lbs, outside the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) station in Andersonstown in west Belfast. The bomb caused an estimated £1 million in damage.

Wednesday 13 July 1983

Four UDR Soldiers Killed

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a land mine in Tyrone killing four members of the Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR). [This was the highest casualty rate suffered by the UDR in a single incident.] The House of Commons rejected a motion calling for the reintroduction of capital punishment in Northern Ireland.

Sunday 25 September 1983

Mass Escape From Maze

38 members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) escaped from the maximum security Maze prison near Lisburn. During the escape a Prison Officer was stabbed in the chest and later died from his injuries. The escape represented the largest breakout in British prison history and a major political embarrassment for the British government. [Within a few days 19 of the original escapees were recaptured however others remained at large for years or were never returned to prison in Northern Ireland.]

Friday 4 November 1983

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) planted a bomb in a lecture room of the (then) Ulster Polytechnic at Jordanstown, County Antrim. The bomb was targeted at a lecture to members of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) and killed two officers and injured a further 33. [Another officer died from his injuries on 13 August 1984.]

Monday 14 November 1983

Charles Armstrong (54), a part-time member of the Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) and also Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) chairman of Armagh District Council, was killed by a booby trap bomb under his car.

Sunday 20 November 1983

Darkley Killings

Three members of the Mountain Lodge Pentecostal Church, Darkley near Keady, County Armagh, were shot dead in an attack that was claimed by the 'Catholic Reaction Force' (CRF). Seven other people were injured in the attack. [The CRF was a covername used by the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA).]

Thursday 24 November 1983

Don Tidey, an American supermarket executive, was kidnapped by the Irish Republican Army (IRA). The kidnap took place in Rathfarnham, County Dublin, Republic of Ireland. [Tidey was rescued on 16 December 1983.]

Wednesday 7 December 1983

Edgar Graham, then a Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) Assembly member, was shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) at the Queen's University of Belfast. Graham was also a lecturer in the Faculty of Law at the university.

Friday 16 December 1983

Security forces in the Republic of Ireland rescued Don Tidey, who had been kidnapped by the Irish Republican Army (IRA). During the rescue at Ballinamore, County Leitrim, there was a gun battle and an Irish soldier and a Garda Síochána (the Irish police) cadet were killed.

Saturday 17 December 1983

Three members of the British police and three civilians were killed as a result of an Irish Republican Army (IRA) bomb attack on Harrod's store, Brompton Road, London. Approximately 90 people were also injured as a result of the blast. [The IRA later issued a statement claiming that the attack had not been authorised by the Army Council and that it regretted the deaths.]

Tuesday 31 January 1984 Two Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers were killed in an Irish Republican Army (IRA) land mine attack on their armoured patrol car, near Forkhill, County Armagh.

February 1984

Tuesday 21 February 1984 Two members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) and a British Army (BA) soldier were killed in a gun battle between an undercover BA unit and the IRA at Dunloy, County Antrim.

Tuesday 6 March 1984 William McConnell (35), then Assistant Governor of the Maze Prison, was shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) outside his home in east Belfast

Thursday 22 March 1984

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded three bombs in buildings in the centre of Belfast. A new Prevention of Terrorism Act became law.

Sunday 8 April 1984

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a gun attack on Thomas Travers, then a Resident Magistrate, outside St Brigid's Catholic Church in Belfast. Travers was seriously injured in the attack but his daughter Mary Travers (22) was shot and killed.

Saturday 18 May 1984

Two Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers were killed when the Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a land mine as their armoured patrol car travelled near Camlough, County Armagh. Two British Army (BA) soldiers were killed, and another died later as a result of injuries, IRA exploded a booby trap bomb under their car in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh. The soldiers were off-duty at the time and had just competed in a fishing competition.

Saturday 14 July 1984

Two Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) soldiers were killed in an Irish Republican Army (IRA) landmine attack at Castlederg, County Tyrone.

Friday 12 October 1984

Brighton Bombing

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a bomb attack on the Grand Hotel, Brighton, England, which was being used as the base for the Conservative Party's annual conference. Four people were killed in the attack and another person died later from injuries received. [The attack was an attempt to kill Margaret Thatcher, then British Prime Minister, and members of her cabinet and it very nearly succeeded. It was later discovered that the bomb had been planted with a long delay timing device in one of the rooms of the hotel. The IRA later issued a statement directed at Thatcher: "Today, we were unlucky, but remember, we only have to be lucky once - you will have to be lucky always."] Neil Kinnock, then leader of the Labour Party, said during a television interview that Irish Unity would not be achieved for many decades.

Thursday 28 February 1985

Nine RUC Officers Killed

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a home-made mortar attack on the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) station in Newry, County Down, and killed nine RUC officers and injured 30 others. [This incident represented the greatest loss of life for the RUC in a single incident. The number of deaths was high because most of those killed were inside temporary dwellings within the RUC base.]

Wednesday 3 April 1985

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a car bomb outside the Courthouse in Newry, County Down. The blast killed an Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officer and a civilian worker employed at the Courthouse.

Monday 20 May 1985

Four Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers in a mobile patrol were killed when the Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb in a parked trailer at Killeen, County Down.

Friday 14 June 1985

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a large bomb, estimated at 1,000 pounds, in the centre of Belfast.

Sunday 23 June 1985

The security service in England said that it had uncovered a plan by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) to launch a bombing campaign mainly against English seaside resort towns.

Monday 29 July 1985

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a large van bomb in the centre of Belfast and caused damage to the Magistrates' Court.

Wednesday 4 September 1985

A Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) base in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, was seriously damaged in an Irish Republican Army (IRA) mortar attack. The base was used to train new recruits.

Saturday 7 December 1985

Two Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers were shot dead during an attack by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) on the RUC base at Ballygawley, County Tyrone.

January 1986

Wednesday 1 January 1986

Two Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers were killed while on foot patrol in Thomas Street in Armagh. The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a remote controlled bomb that had been hidden in a litter bin.

Thursday 22 May 1986

Two Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers and one British soldier were killed by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) near Crossmaglen, County Armagh. The three men had been part of a joint RUC / British Army (BA) foot patrol when the IRA detonated a remote controlled bomb hidden in a ditch.

Wednesday 9 July 1986

Two British soldiers were killed by a remote controlled bomb while they were on foot patrol near Crossmaglen, County Armagh. The attack was carried out by the Irish Republican Army (IRA).

Saturday 26 July 1986

Three Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers were shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) in Market Street, Newry, County Down. The officers had been sitting in a parked armoured patrol car when the attack took place

Wednesday 30 July 1986

John Kyle (40), a Protestant civilian, was shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) as he sat in McCullagh's Bar, Greencastle, County Tyrone. Kyle had been working as a contractor to the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC). [This killing followed threats made by the IRA on 28 July 1986.]

Tuesday 16 December 1986

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a 'proxy' bomb attack on the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) station on the Lisburn Road in Belfast. The station was destroyed in the blast and an estimated 700 homes and scores of business premises were damaged.

Saturday 25 April 1987

A senior Northern Ireland judge and his wife were killed by an Irish Republican Army (IRA) bomb at Killeen, County Armagh. The judge was the fifth member of the Northern Ireland judiciary to be killed by the IRA.

Wednesday 26 August 1987

In a shooting in a Belfast bar two Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers were shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA). A number of bystanders were injured.

8 November 1987

Enniskillen Bombing

During the annual Remembrance Day ceremony in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, a bomb planted by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded at the War Memorial killing 11 people and injuring another 63. One of those killed was Marie Wilson whose father, Gordon Wilson, was injured in the explosion and was with his daughter when she died. Gordon Wilson gave a moving account of his daughter's death in media interviews but stated that he forgave her killers. [Gordon Wilson's quiet dignity had a profound effect on many people in Northern Ireland. He was later involved with initiatives to improve community relations in Enniskillen and eventually was appointed to the Senate in the Republic of Ireland. Gordon Wilson died on 27 June 1995 aged 68.]

Thursday 19 November 1987

A Loyalist activist, George Seawright, was shot and fatally wounded by the Irish People's Liberation Organisation (IPLO); a splinter group of the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA). [George Seawright achieved notoriety for his extreme anti-republican and anti-Catholic views. He died of his injuries two weeks later.]

Tuesday 22 December 1987

John McMichael, then deputy leader of the Ulster Defense Association (UDA), was killed by a booby-trap bomb planted by the Irish Republican Army (IRA). Following his death there were many accusations of collusion between senior UDA members and the IRA in the killing. [This incident was seen by many commentators as part of a process of change in the leadership of the UDA. A younger group of men were to assume the leadership of the organisation and were to introduce a change in the tactics of the UDA. (?)]

Saturday 19 March 1988

Army Corporals Killed

During the funeral of Kevin Brady, killed at Milltown Cemetery (16 March 1988), a car approached the funeral procession at high speed. It was claimed by some present that they feared another attack by Loyalist gunmen. The car's passage was blocked and a group of the mourners attacked the two passengers. The two men in the car were later identified as corporals Derek Wood and David Howes of the British Army. One of the soldiers fired a warning shot but both were beaten and overpowered. The two soldiers were driven to waste ground and shot dead. Part of this incident was also recorded on television news cameras. [The presence of the two soldiers in plain clothes in a republican district of Belfast was never adequately explained.]

Sunday 15 June 1988

Lisburn Killings

An Irish Republican Army (IRA) bomb in Lisburn killed six off-duty British Army soldiers.

Tuesday 5 July 1988

Patrick Ryan, a Catholic priest from the Republic of Ireland, was arrested in Brussels. He was accused of providing support for the Irish Republican Army (IRA) (??).

Saturday 23 July 1988

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) 'mistakenly' killed a married couple and their six-year old son in a bomb attack at Killeen, County Armagh.

August 1988

Monday 1 August 1988

An Irish Republic Army (IRA) bomb killed one soldier and injured nine at an army barracks in London. It was the first IRA bomb in Britain since the 'Brighton' bombing on 12 October 1984.

Thursday 4 August 1988

Two Protestant building workers, were killed by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) in Belleek, County Fermanagh. The two workers had been carrying out repairs at Belleek police station.

Saturday 20 August 1988

Ballygawley Bombing

Eight British Army soldiers were killed when the Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb at Ballygawley, County Tyrone. A further 28 soldiers were injured.

Wednesday 31 August 1988

Sean Dalton and Sheila Lewis, two Catholic pensioners were killed by an Irish Republican Army (IRA) booby-trap bomb in the Creggan area of Derry. The two pensioners had gone to the flat of a neighbour they hadn't seen for a number of days. Dalton detonated the bomb when he climbed through a window of the flat. [The bomb was intended for members of the security forces.]

Tuesday 13 December 1988

John Murray, then Attorney-General of the Republic of Ireland, refused an extradition request from Britain for Partick Ryan, a Catholic priest.

Monday 20 February 1989

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded three bombs in British Army barracks at Tern Hill, Shropshire, England.

Tuesday 7 March 1989

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) killed three Protestant men in Coagh, County Tyrone.

Wednesday 8 March 1989

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) killed two soldiers and injured six others in a landmine explosion on the Buncrana Road near Derry. The Emergency Provision Act was renewed in the House of Commons.

Monday 20 March 1989

Harry Breen, who was then a Chief Superintendent of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC), and Ken Buchanan, who was then a Superintendent, were both killed in an Irish Republican Army (IRA) ambush as they crossed the border in South Armagh.

Sunday 2 July 1989

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) killed a British Army soldier in Hanover, West Germany when they planted a bomb on his car.

Thursday 7 September 1989

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) shot and killed Heidi Hazell, the German wife of a British Army soldier serving in Dortmund, West Germany.

Friday 22 September 1989

Deal Bombing

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb in Deal Barracks, Kent, killing ten British Army soldiers. [Another soldier died on 18 October 1989 from wounds received in the bombing.]

Saturday 18 November 1989

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) detonated a landmine killing three British Army soldiers near Mayobridge, County Down. The soldiers were members of the parachute regiment.

Wednesday 13 December 1989

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) launched an attack on a border post at Derryard, County Fermanagh, killing two British Army soldiers.

Monday 9 April 1990

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a large landmine near Downpatrick, County Down, killing four soldiers of the Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR

Sunday 27 May 1990

In a gun attack in Roermond, Netherlands, the Irish Republican Army (IRA) shot and killed two Australian lawyers on holiday. It was claimed that the men were mistaken for off-duty British Army soldiers. [It was believed that the killings led to a drop in support for the IRA in Australia.]

Friday 20 July 1990

IRA Bomb Stock Exchange

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a large bomb at the London Stock Exchange causing massive damage.

Tuesday 24 July 1990

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb near Armagh killing three members of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) and a Catholic nun who was driving past the scene of the attack.

Monday 30 July 1990

Ian Gow Killed

Ian Gow, then the Conservative Member of Parliament (MP) for Eastbourne, was killed outside his home by an Irish Republican Army (IRA) bomb that had been planted on his car. Gow had been a vocal critic of the IRA and a close friend of Margaret Thatcher, then British Prime Minister.

Sunday 23 September 1990

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) shot and killed an off-duty Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) soldier at Oxford Island, Lough Neagh, County Armagh. This shooting was the first in a series of fresh 'tit-for-tat' killings.

Saturday 13 October 1990

Two Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers were killed by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) in the center of Belfast.

Tuesday 23 October 1990

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) shot and killed a Protestant taxi driver, William Aitken, in Belfast.

Wednesday 24 October 1990

'Proxy Bomb' Attacks

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) launched three bomb attacks at British Army check points. The attacks became know as 'proxy bombs' or 'human bombs' because three Catholic men, whom the IRA claimed had worked for the security forces, were tied into cars which had been loaded with explosives and ordered to drive to the check points. At the Coshquin checkpoint near Derry five soldiers and the man who was forced to drive the car were all killed. In a second attack, at Killeen near Newry, a soldier was killed. The third bomb, that had been driven to Omagh, County Tyrone, failed to detonate. The attacks resulted in widespread outrage.

Saturday 10 November 1990

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) shot and killed two members of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) and two civilians in County Armagh.

Saturday 1 December 1990

A former Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) soldier was shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) near Kilrea, County Derry.

Saturday 5 January 1991

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) planted a series of incendiary devices in premises in the Belfast area. A factory and six shops were destroyed in the attacks.

Sunday 27 January 1991

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out two incendiary bomb attacks on shops in Belfast. [Richard Needham, then a Northern Ireland Office (NIO) Minister, later announced that £25 million would be redirected from social and economic schemes to pay compensation for the damage.]

Sunday 3 February 1991

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a 'proxy bomb' attack on a Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) base in Magherafelt, County Derry. A man, who was employed by a company that carried out work for the security forces, was forced to drive his van containing a bomb, estimated at 500 pounds, into the UDR base. He managed to get away from the vehicle before the bomb exploded. The bomb caused extensive damage to the UDR base and also damaged approximately 50 nearby houses.

Thursday 7 February 1991

Mortar Attack on Downing Street

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) launched an attack on 10 Downing Street, London, while the British Cabinet was holding a meeting. There were no injuries. The attack took the form of three home-made mortars fired from a parked van in nearby Whitehall and represented a serious breach of security in the area. One of the mortars fell in a garden at the back of Downing street and caused some damage. [It was reported later that ministers dived under the cabinet table during the attack.]

Monday 18 February 1991

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb at Victoria Station in London. An inadequate warning was given and one person was killed and over 40 people injured in the attack.

Friday 1 March 1991

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a (horizontal) mortar attack on a Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) mobile patrol on the Killylea Road, Armagh. One UDR soldier was killed and another, who was mortally wounded, died on 4 March 1991.

Thursday 4 April 1991

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb, estimated at 1,000 pounds, in the centre of Banbridge, County Down. The bomb caused widespread damage.

Tuesday 16 April 1991

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a bomb attack on the Shorts aircraft factory in east Belfast.

Sunday 26 May 1991

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a large bomb in a Protestant housing estate in Cookstown. Thirteen people were injured and over 100 houses were damaged by the explosion.

Thursday 30 May 1991

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a bomb attack on a Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) base at Glenanne, County Armagh, and killed three UDR soldiers. The bomb, estimated at 2,000 pounds, was placed in a lorry that was then rolled down a hill and into the perimeter fence.

Sunday 9 June 1991

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a large bomb, estimate at 600 pounds, in a Protestant housing estate in Donacloney, County Down.

Saturday 29 June 1991

Cecil McKnight, then a Ulster Democratic Party member and a former senior member of the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), was shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) at his home in Derry. The Queen paid a visit to Northern Ireland and presented 'colours' to four Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) battalions.

Wednesday 21 August 1991

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a large bomb, estimated at 500 pounds, near an Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) station in Kilrea, County Derry. The explosion causes damage to nearby homes and churches.

Thursday 10 October 1991

The Irish People's Liberation Organisation (IPLO) shot dead a Protestant civilian during a gun attack on a public house on the Shankill Road in west Belfast.

Saturday 2 November 1991

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb at the military wing of Musgrave Park Hospital in Belfast killing two British soldiers. Eighteen people were also injured in the attack.

Wednesday 13 November 1991

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a series of attacks in Belfast and killed four Protestant civilians.

Sunday 24 November 1991

Explosion Inside Crumlin Prison

Two Loyalist paramilitary prisoners were killed by an explosion inside Crumlin Road Prison in Belfast. The explosives had been smuggled into the prison, and fabricated into a bomb, by Republican paramilitary prisoners.

Wednesday 4 December 1991

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb, estimated at 1,200 pounds, in Glengall Street in Belfast. The bomb caused extensive damage to the Grand Opera House which is close to the headquarters of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP).

Sunday 8 December 1991

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a number of incendiary devices in shops in Blackpool and Manchester, England. [Other firebombs exploded in the same cities on the following day.]

Thursday 12 December 1991

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb, estimated at 2,000 pounds, outside a police station in Craigavon, County Armagh. Nearby buildings were also damaged in the attack.

Saturday 14 December 1991

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a number of incendiary devices in a shopping centre in London.

Sunday 15 December 1991

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded an incendiary device at the National Gallery in London.

Monday 16 December 1991

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb on a railway line in south London causing disruption to the rail service.

Wednesday 18 December 1991

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb, estimated at 500 pounds, at the Belfast law courts. The buildings were damaged in the attack.

Saturday 21 December 1991

The Irish People's Liberation Organisation (IPLO) killed two Protestant civilians in a gun attack on a public house in the Village area of Belfast.

Monday 23 December 1991

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) planted a series of incendiary devices at train stations in London and caused disruption to rails services.

Saturday 4 January 1992

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb, estimated at 800 pounds, in Bedford Street in the centre of Belfast. The bomb caused extensive damage to property in the area.

Sunday 5 January 1992

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb, estimated at 500 pounds, in High Street in the centre of Belfast. The bomb caused extensive damage to property in the area.

Friday 10 January 1992

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a small bomb, estimated at 5 pounds, that was concealed in a briefcase and left approximately 300 meters from Downing Street in London.

Friday 17 January 1992

Teebane Bombing

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb killing eight Protestant civilians who had been travelling in a minibus past Teebane crossroads between Cookstown and Omagh, County Tyrone. The men had been working at a military base in County Tyrone and were travelling home when the attack occurred. Peter Brooke, then Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, appeared on the Late Late Show on Radio Telefis Éireann (RTE) and was persuaded to sing 'My Darling Clementine'. [Unionists accused Brooke of gross insensitivity in agreeing to sing on the show following the Teebane bombing. Brooke later revealed that he had offered his resignation over the matter.]

Saturday 15 February 1992

A bomb, estimated at 250 pounds, exploded in the centre of Belfast.

Friday 28 February 1992

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb at London Bridge railway station in London and injured 28 people.

Thursday 5 March 1992

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb, estimated at 1,000 pounds, in the centre of Lurgan, County Armagh. The bomb caused extensive damage of commercial properties in the town. The IRA exploded another bomb in the centre of Belfast that also caused extensive damage.

Tuesday 24 March 1992

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb, estimated at 500 pounds, close to the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) station in Donegall Pass, Belfast. The bomb caused extensive damage to property in the surrounding area.

Friday 10 April 1992

Baltic Exchange Bombing

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded two bombs at the Baltic Exchange in the centre of London and killed three people including a 15 year old girl. The IRA warning proved to be inadequate and added to the confusion as it mentioned the Stock Exchange. [In August there were reports in the media that insurance claims amounted to £800 million pounds. The estimated figure for the whole of Northern Ireland since the start of the conflict was £615 million.]

May 1992

Friday 1 May 1992

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb, estimated at 1,000 pounds, at a border post in County Armagh and killed one British Army soldier and injured a number of others.

August 1992

Sunday 2 August 1992

Two bombs, each estimated at 200 pounds, exploded in Bedford Street, Belfast. Extensive damage was done to buildings in the area.

Wednesday 23 September 1992

IRA Bomb at Forensic Science Laboratory

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a huge bomb, estimated at 2,000 pounds, at the Northern Ireland forensic science laboratories in south Belfast. Twenty people were injured, the laboratories destroyed, and approximately 700 houses were damaged in the blast. [The cost of repairs was estimated at £6 million.]

October 1992

Monday 12 October 1992

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a small bomb in the Sussex Public House, in London. One person died later from injuries received during the explosion; a further four people were also injured. [This one of a series of bomb attacks in London during the previous week.]

Tuesday 20 October 1992

Robert Irvine (43), then a member of the Royal Irish Regiment (RIR), was shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) at his home in Rasharkin, County Antrim. Irvine was the first member of the newly formed RIR to be killed.

Wednesday 21 October 1992

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb, estimated at 200 pounds, in the main street of Bangor, County Down. The bomb caused extensive damage to property in the area.

Friday 30 October 1992

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb, estimated at 250 pounds, at Glengormley Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) station. Thirteen people were injured in the explosion and over 100 houses were damaged. The IRA forced a taxi driver in London to transport a bomb to a location close to Downing Street where it later exploded.

Friday 13 November 1992

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a large van bomb in the centre of Coleraine, County Derry. The bomb caused extensive damage to the commercial heart of the town.

Sunday 15 November 1992 ??

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) attempted to plant a large bomb, estimated at 1,000 pounds, at Canary Wharf in London but were prevented by security men.

Tuesday 1 December 1992

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded two small bombs in the centre of Belfast injuring 27 people. The IRA also attempted to explode a bomb on the Tottenham Court Road in London but the device was defused by bomb disposal officers.

Wednesday 2 December 1992

There was a series of 46 bomb hoaxes in Belfast and Lisburn, County Antrim.

Thursday 3 December 1992

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded two bombs in Manchester, England, injuring over 60 people.

Thursday 10 December 1992

The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) carried out a gun attack and wounded a man who worked for Belfast City Council. The Irish Republican Army (IRA) planted three incendiary bombs in an industrial estate in Belfast and damaged three buildings. The IRA also carried out two bomb attacks at a shopping centre in Wood Green in London. Eleven people including a number of police officers were injured in the attack.

Tuesday 5 January 1993

Incendiary bombs exploded in four stores in Oxford Street in London. [The bombs had been planted by the Irish Republican Army (IRA).]

Saturday 23 January 1993

Michael Ferguson (21), a Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officer, was shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) on Shipquay Street, Derry.

Wednesday 3 February 1993

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out two bomb attacks in London.

Friday 26 February 1993

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded three bombs at a gas works in Warrington, England. The bombs caused a large explosion. Two men were later arrested.

Sunday 7 March 1993

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a large bomb, estimated at 500 pounds, in Main Street in Bangor, County Down. Four Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers were injured in the explosion. [The cost of the damage was later estimated at £2 million. The blast came five days after Patrick Mayhew, then Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, delivered a speech in the town. There was another large explosion in the same street in Bangor on 21 October 1992.]

Saturday 20 March 1993

Warrington Bombs

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded two small bombs in litter bins in Bridge Street, Warrington, England, killing Jonathan Ball aged 3 years and mortally wounding Timothy Parry aged 12 years who died on 25 March 1993. [The IRA had provided inadequate warnings which resulted in the deaths and the 56 injuries. The killings of the two boys led to public protests in England and in the Republic of Ireland against paramilitary violence. The killings also led to the establishment of Initiative '93.]

Friday 23 April 1993

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a bomb attack on an oil terminal in North Shields, England. The bomb damaged a large storage tank.

Saturday 24 April 1993

Bishopsgate Bomb

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a large bomb, estimated at over a ton of home-made explosives, at Bishopsgate in London. One person was killed and over 30 people injured in the explosion. [Later estimates put the cost of repair at £350 million (some reported estimates were as high as £1,000 million).] John Hume, then leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP), and Gerry Adams, then President of Sinn Féin (SF), held their second meeting in a fortnight and issued a first joint statement.

Wednesday 12 May 1993

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb in Oxford, England.

Thursday 20 May 1993

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb, estimated at 1,000 pounds, in Glengall Street, Belfast. Thirteen people were injured in the explosion. The bomb was placed outside the Grand Opera House and close to the Headquarters of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP). [Later estimates put the cost of the damage at £6.5 million.]

Saturday 22 May 1993

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb, estimated at 1,000 pounds, in Portadown, County Armagh. Six people were injured in the explosion. [Later estimates put the cost of the damage at £8 million.]

Sunday 23 May 1993

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb, estimated at 1,500 pounds, in Magherafelt, County Derry. There was another IRA bomb in Belfast.

Monday 5 July 1993

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb, estimated at 1,500 pounds, in the centre of Newtownards, County Down

Friday 13 August 1993

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a series of fire-bomb attacks on the pier at Bournemouth, England, and a number of shops.

Monday 16 August 1993

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a bomb attack in the centre of Strabane, County Tyrone.

Friday 3 September 1993

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb, estimated at 1,000 pounds, in the centre of Armagh. The explosion caused extensive damage to property in the area.

Monday 27 September 1993

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a large bomb, estimated at 300 pounds, in the centre of Belfast and caused extensive damage. The IRA exploded a second bomb, estimated at 500 pounds, in south Belfast.

Saturday 2 October 1993

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded three bombs in Hampstead, north London and injured six people and damaged a number of shops and flats.

Monday 4 October 1993

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded five bombs in north London and injured four people. The IRA issued a statement welcoming the Hume-Adams Initiative.

Saturday 23 October 1993

Shankill Road Bombing

Ten people were killed when a bomb being planted by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded prematurely as it was being planted in a fish shop on the Shankill Road, Belfast. With the exception of one of the bombers who was also killed, the rest of those who died were Protestant civilians. The bombing represented the greatest loss of life in Northern Ireland in a single incident since the Enniskillen bombing on 8 November 1987. A further 57 people were injured in the attack. There was a wave of condemnations of the attack. Loyalist paramilitaries reacted immediately shooting two Catholic men one of whom died later from his wounds. [Over the next week Loyalist paramilitaries killed a total of 12 Catholic civilians. The IRA later claimed that the intended target of the bomb was a meeting of Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF) members that was believed to be taking place in the former Ulster Defence Association (UDA) office above the fish shop.]

Sunday 12 December 1993

Two Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officers were shot dead by the Irish Republican Army (IRA). The two officers were travelling in an unmarked car in Main Street, Fivemiletown, County Tyrone.

Thursday 30 December 1993

A British Army soldier on patrol in Crossmaglen, County Armagh, was shot dead by an Irish Republican Army (IRA) sniper.

Friday 9 February 1996

End of IRA Ceasefire

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a large bomb at South Quay in the Docklands area of London. The lorry bomb killed two people, injured many more, caused millions of pounds worth of damage, and marked the end of the IRA ceasefire after 17 months and 9 days. A statement had been issued by the IRA one hour before the explosion occurred at 7.01pm.

Thursday 15 February 1996

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) left a five pound Semtex bomb in a telephone kiosk in the Charing Cross Road, London.

Sunday 18 February 1996

Edward O'Brien (21), later claimed as one of their members by the Irish Republican Army (IRA), was killed by the premature explosion of the bomb he was carrying. The bomb accidentally detonated in the bus he was traveling in as it passed along Aldwych, London. A number of passengers were injured in the explosion.

Wednesday 17 April 1996

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb in The Boltons, Earls Court, London. The bomb went off in a vacant house and there were no injuries

Friday 7 June 1996

Garda Killed by IRA

Jerry McCabe, then a Detective in Garda Síochána (the Irish police service), was shot dead during a post office robbery in Adare, County Limerick, Republic of Ireland. Suspicion for the killing fell on members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) who later admitted responsibility.

Saturday 15 June 1996

Manchester Bombing

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded a bomb in Manchester, which destroyed a large part of the city centre and injured 200 people. The bomb was estimated to have contained one-and-a-half tonnes of home-made explosives. Although a warning of one hour and twenty minutes was received by a local television station injuries were still caused by the sheer scale of the explosion.

Saturday 13 July 1996

CIRA Bombing

A car bomb exploded outside the Killyhelvin Hotel, Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, causing substantial damage. The bomb was estimated to have contained 1,200 pounds of home-made explosive and the large blast injured 17 people as they were being evacuated from the hotel. The Irish Republican Army (IRA) denied responsibility for the bomb as did Republican Sinn Féin (RSF). Security sources placed the blame for the attack on the Irish Republican National Army (IRNA) considered to be the military wing of RSF. [A group calling itself the Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA) later claimed responsibility for the bomb.]

Monday 7 October 1996

IRA Bombing of Army Headquarters

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded two bombs in the British Army Headquarters, Thiepval Barracks, Lisburn, County Antrim (responsibility for the bombs was claimed on 8 October 1996). 31 people were injured, four seriously, in the attack. (Warrant Officer James Bradwell (43) died four days later (11 October) of injuries received in the blasts). The bombs were each estimated to have contained 800 pounds of home-made explosive. The car bombs were smuggled into what is considered to be the top security base in Northern Ireland. The bombs were the first attack against the security forces in Northern Ireland by the IRA since their ceasefire on 31 August 1994. The bombing coincided with the start of the Conservative Party conference in Bournemouth, and a meeting between loyalist prisoners and representatives of the Progressive Unionist Party (PUP) in the Maze Prison.

January 1997

Wednesday 1 January 1997

Two bombs, estimated at 500 lbs of explosive, were left in the grounds of Belfast Castle. The bombs were safely defused. [No group claimed responsibility but it was believed to be the work of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) (?).]

Sunday 5 January 1997

A bomb, estimated at 250 lbs, was left near Cullyhanna, County Armagh. The device was defused by the British Army. [It was believed to have been planted by the IRA.]

Monday 6 January 1997

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a 'rocket' attack at the Royal Courts of Justice in Belfast injuring a Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officer in the leg.

Saturday 11 January 1997

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a mortar-bomb attack on an unmanned Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) station in Fermanagh.

Thursday 10 April 1997

A woman Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officer was shot and seriously wounded while she was on guard duty outside the Courthouse in the centre of Derry. The Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out the attack.

Friday 18 April 1997

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) planted two bombs and issued a number of other hoax bomb warnings across a number of motorways and railways in England. The bombs and alerts resulted in large-scale disruption.

Friday 9 May 1997

Darren Bradshaw (24), a suspended Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officer, was shot dead by the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) as he drank with friends in the Parliament Bar in Belfast.

Monday 16 June 1997

Two RUC Officers Killed by IRA

Roland John Graham (34), a Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) officer, and David Andrew Johnston (30), a RUC reserve officer, were shot dead in Lurgan, County Armagh. The two officers were shot from close range from behind. The Irish Republican Army (IRA) admitted responsibility for the killings. The two men were survived by five children. [The RUC officers were the first to be killed by the IRA since the ending of its ceasefire on 9 February 1996.]

Tuesday 16 September 1997

A bomb estimated at 400 pounds exploded in Markethill, County Armagh, and caused extensive damage to buildings. [The Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA) later claimed responsibility for the bombing.]

Saturday 27 December 1997

Billy Wright Shot Dead in Maze Prison

Members of the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) shot and killed Billy Wright (37), then leader of the Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF), within the Maze Prison. Wright was sitting in a prison van waiting to be driven to the visiting block when three INLA inmates climbed across the roof of a 'H Block' and shot him several times. Another LVF prisoner in the van was not attacked. The shooting took place around 10.00am. The shooting represented a serious breach of security both in the smuggling of a gun into the prison and the attack itself. [Wright, who was called "King Rat" by the media and security services, was the leader of the LVF. The LVF was composed mainly of former members of the mid-Ulster Brigade of the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF). Wright was thought to be personally responsible for the sectarian killing of a number of Catholic civilians. He had been under a death threat from former colleagues because he opposed the Combined Loyalist Military Command (CLMC) ceasefire.]

Monday 19 January 1998

Jim Guiney (38), then a commander in the Ulster Defence Association (UDA), was shot dead by two members of the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) at his carpet shop in Dunmurray, Belfast. Guiney was married with four children.

Tuesday 10 February 1998

Robert Dougan (38), a leading Loyalist, was shot dead in Dunmurry near Belfast. [It was believed that Dougan was a leading member of the Ulster Defence Association (UDA). While no group claimed responsibility for the killing Republican paramilitaries were involved and the Irish Republican Army (IRA) were later blamed by the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) for the death. The killing of Dougan (and Brendan Campbell on 9 February 1998) led to the expulsion of Sinn Féin (SF) from the multi-party talks on 20 February 1998.]

Monday 23 February 1998

A Republican paramilitary group exploded a large car bomb, estimated at 300 pounds, in the centre of Portadown, County Armagh. Many business premises in the centre of the town were severely damaged by the explosion and two buildings were completely demolished by the blast. There were no injuries in the explosion. [It was thought that the bomb had been planted by the 'Continuity' Irish Republican Army (CIRA).]

Friday 27 March 1998

Cyril Stewart, a former member of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) , was shot dead by Republican paramilitaries [believed to be the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA)] at Dobbin Street in the centre of Armagh. He was shot dead after he left a local supermarket where he had been shopping with his wife. Stewart had left the RUC a few months prior to his shooting because of ill-health. Seamus Mallon, then Member of Parliament (MP) for Armagh and Newry, described the attack as an act of "absolute savagery".

Wednesday 8 April 1998

Trevor Deeny (34), a former Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) prisoner, was shot dead by Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) gunmen in the Waterside area of Derry. It was the first 'Troubles' related killing in the city for almost four years.

Wednesday 24 June 1998

A Republican paramilitary group exploded a car bomb, estimated at 200 pounds, in the centre of Newtownhamilton, County Armagh. A 50 minute warning about the bomb had been received but people were still being cleared when it exploded and six people, including a 15 year old boy, were injured. The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) claimed responsibility for the bomb. [Security sources believed that the "real" Irish Republican Army (rIRA) was involved in supplying the INLA with Semtex commercial explosive which was thought to have been used as a component in the bomb.]

Saturday 1 August 1998

Thirty-three civilians and two members of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) were injured when a car bomb, estimated at 500 pounds, exploded in Banbridge, County Down. Extensive damage was also caused in the explosion that was later claimed by the "real" Irish Republican Army (rIRA).

Saturday 15 August 1998

The Omagh Bomb

Twenty-nine people died as a result of an explosion at 3.10 pm in Omagh, County Tyrone. The bomb had been planted by the "real" Irish Republican Army (rIRA). The death toll represented the single worst incident within Northern Ireland since the beginning of the conflict. [33 people were killed in bombs in Dublin and Monaghan on 17 May 1974.] Among the dead were family members, one family lost members from three generations, and close friends, and a number of tourists from the Republic of Ireland and Spain. One woman who died was pregnant with twins. There were hundreds of people injured some of whom lost limbs or their sight. [28 people died on the day and an injured man died three weeks later. Another man was killed when the car he was driving was involved in a collision with an ambulance that was transporting injured people to a hospital in Belfast.] It was later learnt that there had been a misleading phone warning and the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) directed people towards the bomb rather than away from it. [The code word used was that of the rIRA, a breakaway group of dissident members from the Provisional IRA who disagreed with the political direction being taken by the Sinn Féin leadership. There was outrage and shock across the whole population of Northern Ireland. Many people expressed the hope that this incident would mark a turning point in the conflict.]

 



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